Anglo-Saxon Historical Introduction Project

    I. You will work in groups of no more than four and will be assigned one of the four groups of influential early inhabitants of Britain. You will create an oral presentation on your inhabitants lasting about three to five minutes and including a visual aid.


    1. Celts   2. Romans     3. Anglo-Saxons    4. Vikings     5. Normans


    II. Research your group using at least three sites and list them in MLA bibliographic format. Consider the following areas:


    ·         Origin

    ·         Characteristics of the culture

    ·         Contributions to/ Influences on Britain:




     Social structure and government


    Architecture and construction

    Interesting trivia


    III.  Document your resources.

    On your visual aid, list the sites you used for your information  in the following MLA format:

    If available, author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.” Website title.

         Original  date of publication if available. Page numbers if available. Web. Date

         you accessed the information.

     If your pictures are from the Internet, paste the URL near each picture.



    IV. Include visual aids (Pic Collage, PowerPoint, Prezi, posters, etc.) in an oral presentation involving all group members.



    Rubric                                              4 Excellent      3 Good      2 Fair       1 Poor      0 Missing

    ______Evidence of Preparation

    • Research
    • Textual evidence



    • Poise and confidence
    • Eye contact
    • Voice quality
    • Grammar

    ______Visual Aid


    ______Total Score



    Hero Composition Topics 
    Write a well-developed paragraph with a topic sentence and concluding sentence on ONE of the following topics:
    1. Who is your personal hero? Why?
    2. For whom would you be willing to die?
    3. To what cause would you be willing to devote your life?
    4. Is it harder to live or to die for a cause? Explain.
    5. Are some lives worth more than others? Why, or why not?
    6. Would you rather have a short, happy life with a violent death or a long, boring life with a peaceful death? Why?
    - From The Question Book 

    Beowulf Vocabulary


    1. Gape-v. to stare at with wonder or amazement


    1. Lament- n./v. a cry of mourning or sorrow/ to cry out in sorrow


    1. Taut- adj. tight; emotionally strained


    1. Relish-v. to enjoy greatly


    1. Reparation-n. repayment, compensation


    1. Pilgrimage-n. a trip made for a religious or historical purpose


    1. Spawn-n. to create or produce


    1. Moor-n. a wasteland, an expanse of rolling, infertile land


    1. Shroud-n. a burial cloth


    1. Solace-n. comfort in a time of grief or trouble


    1. Murky- adj. gloomy, cloudy, unclear


    1. Loathsome-adj. disgusting


    1. Cower-v. to shrink back in fear


    1. Lair-n. home of a wild animal


    1. Omen-n. a prophetic sign


    1. Heathen-adj./n. uncivilized, pagan/ one who is uncivilized or who does not recognize the Christian God


    1. Infamous- adj. having a very bad reputation


    1. Livid- adj. discolored from being bruised


    1. Purge- v. to cleanse or get rid of something undesirable


    1. Affliction- n. a force that causes suffering or oppresses


    1. Gorge- v. to stuff with food; glut


    1. Talon- n. a claw


    Using your word list, fill in the blank with the most appropriate word. You may need to add word endings.

    1.       The dirty waters of the ______ pool did not invite us to take a swim.

    2.       After a hard week at work, Mrs. Crane ______ a chance to relax and read a book.

    3.       Learning that her kitten had been hit by a car, the little girl gave a loud, heartbreaking ______.

    4.       I need to _______ the old, worn-out clothes from my closet.

    5.       Superstitious people believe that a having a black cat cross in front of them is a/an ______ of bad luck.

    6.       Secure the boat to the dock by making the rope _____ so that the boat cannot drift.

    7.       The wolf crept into its ______ to sleep.

    8.       The angry mother slapped her disobedient child’s hand, but she hit him so hard that she left a/an _______ mark there.

    9.       Brainstorming sessions help creative individuals to _______ new ideas.

    10.   Threatened by the bully, the small child _______ in fear against the wall.

    11.   Arthritis can be a crippling _______.

    12.   We put on boots to trek through the boggy _______.

    13.   The insurance company offered monetary _______ for Tom’s injuries in the accident.

    14.   Al Capone was a/an ________ criminal whose name was often in the papers in the 1930’s.

    15.   The children _______ themselves on the Halloween candy before their mother realized how much they had eaten.

    16.   We all ________ at teacher when she wore a clown costume to school.

    17.   The bear scratched the tree with its sharp ______.

    18.   The missionary was sent to convert the _______.

    19.   The most famous ______ is the one that supposedly covered Jesus in the tomb.

    20.   Some people like snakes, but others find them to be ________ creatures.

    21.   We sent sympathy cards to the family to offer them _______ in their mourning.

    22.   Muslims are required to take a/an _______ to Mecca if they can.

    Beowulf Discussion Questions

    After reading the Beowulf selections, write your reflections on each of the following questions in well-organized and developed paragraphs. Cite textual evidence to support your answers.


    1.     Does Beowulf as a man embody the Anglo-Saxon heroic ideals? Does he meet YOUR criteria for a hero? Why, or why not?


    2.     What does this story say about the conflict between good and evil? Consider the following questions: How do we determine what is evil? How do we identify evil? How may our point of view affect our answer to this question? Were the monsters in this story evil? If so, were they evil to the same degree?


    3.     Beowulf has sometimes been criticized for hubris, excessive pride. Do you feel this charge is justified? Why, or why not?


    4.     Do you feel our society shares the same values as those seen in Beowulf? Explain?


    5.     Find an example of each of the following literary devices in the story: personification, alliteration, caesura, onomatopoeia, epithet, and kenning.

    Anglo-Saxon Literary Terms

    1. Epic- a long, narrative poem about a hero and his society's values

    2. Kenning- a metaphorical compound renaming simpler nouns. Examples: "whale road" (sea) "shepherd of evil" (Grendel)

    3. Alliteration- repetition of beginning consonant sounds

    4. Personification- giving human traits to non-humans

    5. Caesura- a pause, split, or break in a line of poetry.

    Example: " He took what he wanted, // all the treasures"

    6. Onomatopoeia- use of words whose sounds echo their meanings. Examples: crack, buzz, pop


    Practice: Label each of the following with the term most evident in the sentence.

    1. The angry wind snatched my hat off my head and threw it into the gutter.

    2. Her acts of kindness, seeds of love, grew in the hearts of all whom she met.

    3. Alfred the Great, his people's mighty shield, is considered to be the best Anglo-Saxon leader.

    4. When Stephen swung the bat, he heard a loud snap and felt a pain shoot through his shoulder.

    5. Grendel, a curse of Satan, tormented the villagers for many years.

    1. Personification- The wind had human emotions and hands that snatched and threw.
    2. Kenning- "Seeds of love" metaphorically renames her acts of kindness. They are not literal seeds but acts that will bear good fruit.
    3. Kenning- Alfred was not literally their shield; he instead was a supportive and powerful king.
    4. Onomatopoeia- The "snap" is the sound we'd really hear from a shoulder that was dislocated by a hard swing.
    5.Kenning- Grendel was not literally a curse, but what he did seemed Satanic.

    Epic Elements

    1. Superhuman hero

    2. Large-scale battle affecting many lives

    3. Long, boasting speeches

    4. Elevated language

    5. Characters and weapons

    6. Supernatural agents of good and evil aiding opposing sides

    7. In medias res- beginning in the middle of the action

    8. Invocation of the muse

    9. Announcement of the theme at the beginning

    Cycles in Beowulf

    Hibernation Cycle -  the seasonal cycle of life
    Beowulf- "enemy of the bear who fights like a bear"
    Bear- a creature associated with hibernation (sleep/death)
    Spring- new life, rebirth
    Summer - growth, maturity
    Fall- old age, decline
    Winter- death
    Battle I- spring/summer (Beowulf was experienced but not mature enough to come prepared for Grendel, whom he fought with bare hands.)
    Battle II- summer (Beowulf had learned and matured from Battle I and came with a sword for this battle.)
    Battle III- fall/winter (Beowulf, an old man, met his death, his winter, in this battle, but Wiglaf began the cycle anew.)

    Initiation Cycle

    Battle I

    Foe: Grendel

    Preparation: None ( armor, useless men, and bare hands)

    Initiation: manhood, warriorhood, life, and evil

    Battle II

    Foe: Grendel's mother

    Prep.: Sword, armor

    Initiation: Greater evil, the unknown, kingship

    Battle III

    Foe: Dragon (Satanic symbol)

    Prep.: Sword, armor, men

    Initiation: Greatest evil, death


    1. How does the hibernation cycle reflect Beowulf's (and our) life cycle?

    2. Why is it called a cycle?

    3. How does the initiation cycle reflect Beowulf's increasing maturity?

    4. How do the hibernation and initiation cycles relate to each other?

    Beowulf Writing Responses  Form B

    Select one of the following topics to develop in a composition with a topic sentence or introductory paragraph, supporting details and examples, and a concluding sentence (clincher) or concluding paragraph.


    1. For whom would you be willing to die? Why?

    2. Is it harder to live or to die for a cause? Explain.

    3. For what cause or belief would you be willing to devote, and possibly sacrifice, your life?

    4. Would you rather have a short, happy life with a violent death or a long, boring life with a peaceful death?

    5. Who is your personal hero? Why?

    6. What would you consider to be your Grendel, the greatest challenge you have faced so far? How have you met that challenge? How has facing it caused you to grow or affected you?

    7. What do you feel is your unknown, the murky, unclear “waters” that you will figuratively dive into one day? How have you prepared for this challenge? What are the positive outcomes you anticipate from successfully facing it?

    8. Do you consider yourself an adult? Why, or why not? If not, what traits do you feel you need to acquire? When do you think you will become an adult? Is age a factor?

    9. How have you emotionally changed, grown, or matured since you were a high school freshman?

    10. What do you think is the greatest challenge people face? What do you think your greatest challenge will be? How are you preparing for it?

    11. Joseph Addison (1672-1719) once said, “Fame is a vapor, popularity an accident, riches take wing. Only one thing endures, and that is character.” How do you think Anglo-Saxons would react to this statement? How do you react to it?

    12. To the Anglo-Saxon warriors, as we saw in Beowulf, being remembered as brave, honorable, and noble was important. For what do you want to be remembered? What do you want to leave as your legacy?


    Review for Beowulf


    I.                    Characters:  Identify each character being described.


    1. Beowulf’s uncle
    2. King of the Danes
    3. Beowulf’s loyal soldier in Battle III
    4. Grendel’s human grandfather
    5. “a mighty water witch”
    6. a symbol for the devil
    7. Beowulf’s king
    8.  was killed when decapitated by a magical sword
    9. “prince of the Geats”
    10. “ the strongest of the Geats”
    11. “Healfdane’s son”
    12. “that shepherd of evil”


    II.                 Structure: Fill in the blank with the answer relating to the structure of the story.


    1. Beowulf is a/an _____, a long poem that tells a story about a hero and his society’s values.
    2. The symbolic passage of the seasons of life in this story is said to be the ______ cycle.
    3. When Beowulf is in Battle I, he uses no weapons, but he does have some previous fighting experience. Therefore, he is between the seasons ______ and ______.
    4. Having learned from his experience with Grendel, he matures and realizes that he needs to be more prepared when he fights Grendel’s mother. Which season is he now in?
    5. After ruling as king for fifty years, Beowulf, an old man, enters the season _____.
    6. When he, Beowulf enters the season ____ while Wiglaf enters the season _____.
    7. In Battle I, Beowulf demonstrates independence and responsibility and is initiated into _____, _____, _____, and ______.
    8. The story teaches that we will be given greater challenges when we successfully meet deal with those life presents. What is the greater challenge, or greater evil, Beowulf faces in Battle II?
    9. Because he faces his opponent on the enemy’s territory, he is initiated into the ____.
    10. He faces greatest evil and death in Battle III when he faces a dragon, which symbolizes the _____.



    III.               Literary Devices


    Using the word bank below, identify the literary device seen in each.


    Alliteration   Kenning   Epithet   Personification  Onomatopoeia


    1. “I’m not a bottomless treasure chest!” complained Wendy’s boyfriend as she asked him for the expensive necklace.
    2. The click of the pen annoyed me.
    3. “He’s a diligent worker,” commented Mr. Davis as he wrote a recommendation for the young employee.
    4. We heard the owl’s hoot and the distant rumble of a train as we in our tent.
    5. Creeping quietly through the front door, Doug dragged his weary way to bed, trying not to awaken his family.
    6. A fierce lion, Mr. Wilson frightened the children from his yard with a loud roar.
    7. Neil knows how to knot the rope, even though his hands are gnarled and arthritic.
    8. Dr. Franklin is a storehouse of knowledge and will help us on our research paper.
    9. The headlights of the car glared menacingly at the oncoming traffic.
    10. As we sat in the assembly listening to the speech, time seemed to creep by on slow, weary legs.


    IV.              Historical Background


    A.  Using the word bank below, identify each group described.


    Romans   Vikings    Anglo-Saxons    Normans   Celts


    1. Established Christian monasteries as centers of writing and leaning
    2. Were the first important inhabitants of Britain
    3. Valued fame and comitatus
    4. Had a class of priests called Druids
    5. Ended the Anglo-Saxon rule in 1066 A.D.
    6. Introduced pronouns and legal terms and simplified the English language by removing inflectional endings
    7. Had four social classes and selected leaders through a witan
    8. Gave us our alphabet
    9. Introduced the Old English language in 449 A.D.
    10. Like the Anglo-Saxons, had an oral literature
    11. Were warlike people from Denmark, Sweden, and Germany who had a similar culture and language
    12. Had written literature and used Latin, the language of the Church and learning
    13. Came from France
    14. Were only partly successful in invading England; established trading centers
    15. Used a Germanic, runic alphabet called futhorc
    16. Had a king who started the first history written in English, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle


    V. Sequencing: Number the following events in the order in which they occurred in Beowulf.


    1. _____ Wiglaf becomes king of the Geats.

    2. _____ Grendel’s mother seeks to avenge her son’s death.

    3. _____ Beowulf boasts that no man except him could hope to defeat the dragon.

    4. _____ Grendel begins his attacks on the Danish meadhall Herot.

    5. _____ Beowulf presents his credentials to King Hrothgar.

    6. _____ The Danes sing praises to the Almighty for His beautiful creation.

    7. _____ Beowulf returns with Grendel’s head and the hilt of a magic sword.

    8. _____ Beowulf’s men hack uselessly with their swords.

    9. _____ Beowulf is wrapped in the flames of his enemy, receiving mortal wounds.

    10. _____ Beowulf sees a magical sword in an underwater lair and uses it to defeat his enemy.